A Renaissance In U.S. Energy
America’s energy resurgence is one of the biggest economic game-changers in modern global history. Current technologies are extracting more oil and gas from shale, oil sands and beneath the ocean floor.
Domestic manufacturers once clamoring for more affordable fuels now have them. Breaking from its past role as a hungry energy importer, the U.S. is moving toward potentially becoming a major energy exporter.
“As the surge in domestic energy production becomes a game-changer, it’s time to change the game when it comes to both midstream and downstream energy risk management and risk transfer,” said Rob Rokicki, a New York-based senior vice president with Liberty International Underwriters (LIU) with 25 years of experience underwriting energy property risks around the globe.
Given the domino effect, whereby critical issues impact each other, today’s businesses and insurers can no longer look at challenges in isolation one issue at a time. A holistic, collaborative and integrated approach to minimizing risk and improving outcomes is called for instead.
Aging Infrastructure, Aging Personnel
The irony of the domestic energy surge is that just as the industry is poised to capitalize on the bonanza, its infrastructure is in serious need of improvement. Ten years ago, the domestic refining industry was declining, with much of the industry moving overseas. That decline was exacerbated by the Great Recession, meaning even less investment went into the domestic energy infrastructure, which is now facing a sudden upsurge in the volume of gas and oil it’s being called on to handle and process.
“We are in a renaissance for energy’s midstream and downstream business leading us to a critical point that no one predicted,” Rokicki said. “Plants that were once stranded assets have become diamonds based on their location. Plus, there was not a lot of new talent coming into the industry during that fallow period.”
In fact, according to a 2014 Manpower Inc. study, an aging workforce along with a lack of new talent and skills coming in is one of the largest threats facing the energy sector today. Other estimates show that during the next decade, approximately 50 percent of those working in the energy industry will be retiring. “So risk managers can now add concerns about an aging workforce to concerns about the aging infrastructure,” he said.
Increasing Frequency of Severity
Current financial factors have also contributed to a marked increase in frequency of severity losses in both the midstream and downstream energy sector. The costs associated with upgrades, debottlenecking and replacement of equipment, have increased significantly,” Rokicki said. For example, a small loss 10 years ago in the $1 million to $5 million ranges, is now increasing rapidly and could readily develop into a $20 million to $30 million loss.
Man-made disasters, such as fires and explosions that are linked to aging infrastructure and the decrease in experienced staff due to the aging workforce, play a big part. The location of energy midstream and downstream facilities has added to the underwriting risk.
“When you look at energy plants, they tend to be located around rivers, near ports, or near a harbor. These assets are susceptible to flood and storm surge exposure from a natural catastrophe standpoint. We are seeing greater concentrations of assets located in areas that are highly exposed to natural catastrophe perils,” Rokicki explained.
“A hurricane thirty years ago would affect fewer installations then a storm does today. This increases aggregation and the magnitude for potential loss.”
On its own, the domestic energy bonanza presents complex risk management challenges.
However, gradual changes to insurance coverage for both midstream and downstream energy have complicated the situation further. Broadening coverage over the decades by downstream energy carriers has led to greater uncertainty in adjusting claims.
A combination of the downturn in domestic energy production, the recession and soft insurance market cycles meant greatly increased competition from carriers and resulted in the writing of untested policy language.
In effect, the industry went from an environment of tested policy language and structure to vague and ambiguous policy language.
Keep in mind that no one carrier has the capacity to underwrite a $3 billion oil refinery. Each insurance program has many carriers that subscribe and share the risk, with each carrier potentially participating on differential terms.
“Achieving clarity in the policy language is getting very complicated and potentially detrimental,” Rokicki said.
Back to Basics
Has the time come for a reset?
Rokicki proposes getting back to basics with both midstream and downstream energy risk management and risk transfer.
He recommends that the insured, the broker, and the carrier’s underwriter, engineer and claims executive sit down and make sure they are all on the same page about coverage terms and conditions.
It’s something the industry used to do and got away from, but needs to get back to.
“Having a claims person involved with policy wording before a loss is of the utmost importance,” Rokicki said, “because that claims executive can best explain to the insured what they can expect from policy coverage prior to any loss, eliminating the frustration of interpreting today’s policy wording.”
As well, having an engineer and underwriter working on the team with dual accountability and responsibility can be invaluable, often leading to innovative coverage solutions for clients as a result of close collaboration.
According to Rokicki, the best time to have this collaborative discussion is at the mid-point in a policy year. For a property policy that runs from July 1 through June 30, for example, the meeting should happen in December or January. If underwriters try to discuss policy-wording concerns during the renewal period on their own, the process tends to get overshadowed by the negotiations centered around premiums.
After a loss occurs is not the best time to find out everyone was thinking differently about the coverage,” he said.
Changes in both the energy and insurance markets require a new approach to minimizing risk. A more holistic, less siloed approach is called for in today’s climate. Carriers need to conduct more complex analysis across multiple measures and have in-depth conversations with brokers and insureds to create a better understanding and collectively develop the best solutions. LIU’s integrated business approach utilizing underwriters, engineers and claims executives provides a solid platform for realizing success in this new and ever-changing energy environment.
This article was produced by the R&I Brand Studio, a unit of the advertising department of Risk & Insurance, in collaboration with Liberty International Underwriters. The editorial staff of Risk & Insurance had no role in its preparation.
When Insurers Say No
After 23 years managing risk at a company with a product line that includes respirators that protect workers from toxins created during sandblasting, Roger Andrews has learned a thing or two about complex claims.
As director of risk management for personal protective equipment maker E.D. Bullard Co., Andrews has handled thousands of lawsuits over the years, including those stemming from occupational disease claims in which plaintiffs have sought damages for asbestosis and silicosis — diseases that may be contracted 10 to 15 years or more before any symptoms or actual claims arise.
Some cases have emerged because workers used Bullard’s safety gear sporadically or not at all.
Whatever the merits of the underlying cases, it’s no surprise that historically such lawsuits have led insurers to balk at supplying policyholders with indemnification or defense. Clearly, the long-tail nature of occupational disease claims has led to disputes over items including applicable coverage triggers, policy duration, and sufficient notifications (or the lack thereof).
Nevertheless, Andrews said it is rare now that he faces conflicts with insurers, and that is largely due to ongoing relationship-building efforts to ensure he and his underwriters and claims adjusters are on the same page.
Andrews has worked with some carriers for 18 years. “It still makes sense to meet with them regularly once a year, usually in August just prior to our October renewals,” Andrews said, “just to get a feel for the marketplace, any rate increases, and what the situation is if we encountered any unique risks.
“It may be that we haven’t seen any claims or that we’ve seen lots of claims, and we’d talk through that.”
Working to solidify insurer relationships won’t always do the trick, of course. Most experts agree that insurance challenges continue to become more complex across commercial property as well as liability lines.
Industry attorney Ty Childress, a partner and head of the insurance recovery group at Jones Day in Los Angeles, said there are numerous cases where insurers are apt to deny claims — particularly when the stakes are high and large dollar amounts are at issue.
Such claims include “asbestos and environmental exposures covering multiple policy years,” he said.
Nor are the problems confined to liability insurance, Childress said, noting that the nature of business interruption can also make claims valuation difficult and subject to differing views from legal and insurance experts.
So, what are risk managers to do? Attorneys, brokers and other risk experts have several recommendations for insureds hoping to avoid insurer litigation or failing that, manage such cases more deftly.
One basic step risk managers should take is, prior to policy issuance or during annual meetings with underwriters, make sure any attorney you plan to use is on your insurers’ approved list in case litigation arises, Andrews said.
“One good rule of thumb is to anticipate that litigation will arise under most policies,” said Andrews.
“Not having your preferred attorney or law firm on the insurer’s ‘panel counsel’ list is a source of litigation in and of itself and can really prejudice the effective management of the litigation,” he said.
In addition to tightening the connection with insurers, risk managers should also ask to select the independent adjuster who will work on their account, said John Dempsey, managing director and practice leader, claims preparation, advocacy and valuations at Aon Global Risk Consulting.
Business Interruption Disconnect
Dempsey said there have been some real changes occurring in the property-catastrophe sector of late, in terms of how business interruption (BI) risks are interpreted.
For example, when a law firm noticed its billable hours fell following Superstorm Sandy and tried to collect under its BI policy, the lead insurer on the program interpreted the coverage clause in a somewhat novel way.
“The insurer said, ‘Let’s look at each lawyer [at the firm] and whether the reduced billings were the result of physical damage to the law firm’s property, or other causes such as trees blocking their driveways, gas shortages, or time spent repairing their damaged houses,’ ” Dempsey said.
“Not having your preferred attorney or law firm on the insurer’s ‘panel counsel’ list is a source of litigation in and of itself and can really prejudice the effective management of the litigation.”— Roger Andrews, director of risk management, E.D. Bullard Co.
“If other ‘causes’ were found, the business income claim was reduced, accordingly. Yet, all of these causes were inextricably linked to Sandy and its effects. There’s a disconnect here,” he said.
Clearly, that storm helped to illustrate that insurance products have not kept up with the changing risks companies are facing, he said.
For one thing, because coastal flooding caused significant damage, it was important to know whether that peril was classified as “flood” or “storm surge” under the policy. In some cases, insureds without adequate flood coverage were out of luck, he said.
Furthermore, whereas many businesses did not suffer direct property damage, which is generally required for the recovery of business interruption losses, the wider effects of Sandy meant that thousands of employees had trouble getting to work due to infrastructure damage in the storm’s aftermath.
Others suffered losses because financial institutions closed down for two days.
The result: Although many businesses sustained Sandy-related financial losses, without direct physical damage to trigger coverage, many insureds found they lacked protection under their property BI policies.
That has led some underwriters to urge risk managers to lower their claim recovery expectations.
“They do not wish to insure all of the things that could go wrong following a natural catastrophe like Superstorm Sandy or a terrorist event like 9/11,” Dempsey said.
Insurance company claims adjusters have pointed to the broader economic impact of large-scale events such as Sandy or 9/11 and theorized that certain losses would have been incurred even if a business did not take a direct hit.
This came as a shock to businesses that thought their policy covered all BI losses stemming from Sandy.
And, in fact, this theory — put forth by insurers and insurance adjusters — often has no basis in the policy wording, Dempsey said.
To minimize surprises going forward, Dempsey generally recommends that his clients have a role in selecting the independent adjuster and other insurance company experts working on their account.
“That may sound unusual,” he said. “But so much of the claims process comes down to personal relationships,” he said.
“Knowing the adjuster and the other experts, and being able to come to a meeting of the minds in terms of objectives and working through problems will pay huge dividends,” he said.
Here are some tips for dealing with complex claims litigation involving insurers:
- Timing issues often create conflicts
One problem that can frustrate risk managers is claims-made liability coverage, which requires policyholders to give notice of circumstances that may give rise to a claim in the future, said attorney Mark Garbowski, a shareholder at Anderson Kill.
“That’s caused disagreements as to whether a new claim related back to an earlier claim or circumstance, and as to which tower of policies it went into,” said Garbowski, whose practice concentrates on insurance recovery on behalf of policyholders, with particular emphasis on professional liability coverages.
He advises insureds with claims-made coverage to expand their notification to insurers about potential claims.
“You might have a claim that comes in today and that relates back to a notice of circumstances two years ago. In that case, I suggest you give notice to policies in effect today as well as those in force two years ago,” he said.
- Know state law
Frequently, when liability cases emerge, the third-party plaintiff will demand to see all communications between the insured and its underwriters. It is of paramount importance to know the law in your state, said Childress.
“Policyholders need to be wary of whether or not their communications with their insurers may be revealed to the underlying plaintiff,” he said. The answer may depend upon whether the insurer is a primary or defending insurer.
- Review coverage extensions and exclusions annually
“When meeting with underwriters — something that should take place once a year at least — risk managers should discuss coverage extensions or exclusions that may be or should be on the policy and that could be of particular concern,” said Andrews of E.D. Bullard.
“A lot of the time, litigation arises because the risk manager thinks there’s coverage and the claims person says no, there’s this or that exclusion,” he said. “You want to know [in advance] what conditions might be imposed on the policy.”
- Understand Your Cyber Liability Coverage
As cyber liability becomes a growing area of concern, risk managers need to be increasingly careful about what they’re buying.
“In the case of data breach, you’ve got to notify every single person that’s been affected,” Andrews said, and the costs can be monumental. If you want indemnification for such expenses, make sure whatever program you choose includes breach mitigation coverage.
Six Best Practices For Effective WC Management
It’s no secret that the professionals responsible for managing workers compensation programs need to be constantly vigilant.
Rising health care costs, complex state regulation, opioid-based prescription drug use and other scary trends tend to keep workers comp managers awake at night.
“Risk managers can never be comfortable because it’s the nature of the beast,” said Debbie Michel, president of Helmsman Management Services LLC, a third-party claims administrator (and a subsidiary of Liberty Mutual Insurance). “To manage comp requires a laser-like, constant focus on following best practices across the continuum.”
Michel pointed to two notable industry trends — rises in loss severity and overall medical spending — that will combine to drive comp costs higher. For example, loss severity is predicted to increase in 2014-2015, mainly due to those rising medical costs.
Debbie discusses the top workers’ comp challenge facing buyers and brokers.
The nation’s annual medical spending, for its part, is expected to grow 6.1 percent in 2014 and 6.2 percent on average from 2015 through 2022, according to the Federal Government’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This increase is expected to be driven partially by increased medical services demand among the nation’s aging population – many of whom are baby boomers who have remained in the workplace longer.
Other emerging trends also can have a potential negative impact on comp costs. For example, the recent classification of obesity as a disease (and the corresponding rise of obesity in the U.S.) may increase both workers comp claim frequency and severity.
“The true goal here is to think about injured employees. Everyone needs to focus on helping them get well, back to work and functioning at their best. At the same time, following a best practices approach can reduce overall comp costs, and help risk managers get a much better night’s sleep.”
– Debbie Michel, President, Helmsman Management Services LLC (a subsidiary of Liberty Mutual)
“These are just some factors affecting the workers compensation loss dollar,” she added. “Risk managers, working with their TPAs and carriers, must focus on constant improvement. The good news is there are proven best practices to make it happen.”
Michel outlined some of those best practices risk managers can take to ensure they get the most value from their workers comp spending and help their employees receive the best possible medical outcomes:
1. Workplace Partnering
Risk managers should look to partner with workplace wellness/health programs. While typically managed by different departments, there is an obvious need for risk management and health and wellness programs to be aligned in understanding workforce demographics, health patterns and other claim red flags. These are the factors that often drive claims or impede recovery.
“A workforce might have a higher percentage of smokers or diabetics than the norm, something you can learn from health and wellness programs. Comp managers can collaborate with health and wellness programs to help mitigate the potential impact,” Michel said, adding that there needs to be a direct line between the workers compensation goals and overall employee health and wellness goals.
Debbie discusses the second biggest challenge facing buyers and brokers.
2. Financing Alternatives
Risk managers must constantly re-evaluate how they finance workers compensation insurance programs. For example, there could be an opportunity to reduce costs by moving to higher retention or deductible levels, or creating a captive. Taking on a larger financial, more direct stake in a workers comp program can drive positive changes in safety and related areas.
“We saw this trend grow in 2012-2013 during comp rate increases,” Michel said. “When you have something to lose, you naturally are more focused on safety and other pre-loss issues.”
3. TPA Training, Tenure and Resources
Businesses need to look for a tailored relationship with their TPA or carrier, where they work together to identify and build positive, strategic workers compensation programs. Also, they must exercise due diligence when choosing a TPA by taking a hard look at its training, experience and tools, which ultimately drive program performance.
For instance, Michel said, does the TPA hold regular monthly or quarterly meetings with clients and brokers to gauge progress or address issues? Or, does the TPA help create specific initiatives in a quest to take the workers compensation program to a higher level?
4. Analytics to Drive Positive Outcomes, Lower Loss Costs
Michel explained that best practices for an effective comp claims management process involve taking advantage of today’s powerful analytics tools, especially sophisticated predictive modeling. When woven into an overall claims management strategy, analytics can pinpoint where to focus resources on a high-cost claim, or they can capture the best data to be used for future safety and accident prevention efforts.
“Big data and advanced analytics drive a better understanding of the claims process to bring down the total cost of risk,” Michel added.
5. Provider Network Reach, Collaboration
Risk managers must pay close attention to provider networks and specifically work with outcome-based networks – in those states that allow employers to direct the care of injured workers. Such providers understand workers compensation and how to achieve optimal outcomes.
Risk managers should also understand if and how the TPA interacts with treating physicians. For example, Helmsman offers a peer-to-peer process with its 10 regional medical directors (one in each claims office). While the medical directors work closely with claims case professionals, they also interact directly, “peer-to-peer,” with treatment providers to create effective care paths or considerations.
“We have seen a lot of value here for our clients,” Michel said. “It’s a true differentiator.”
6. Strategic Outlook
Most of all, Michel said, it’s important for risk managers, brokers and TPAs to think strategically – from pre-loss and prevention to a claims process that delivers the best possible outcome for injured workers.
Debbie explains the value of working with Helmsman Management Services.
Helmsman, which provides claims management, managed care and risk control solutions for businesses with 50 employees or more, offers clients what it calls the Account Management Stewardship Program. The program coordinates the “right” resources within an organization and brings together all critical players – risk manager, safety and claims professionals, broker, account manager, etc. The program also frequently utilizes subject matter experts (pharma, networks, nurses, etc.) to help increase knowledge levels for risk and safety managers.
“The true goal here is to think about injured employees,” Michel said. “Everyone needs to focus on helping them get well, back to work and functioning at their best.
“At the same time, following a best practices approach can reduce overall comp costs, and help risk managers get a much better night’s sleep,” she said.
To learn more about how a third-party administrator like Helmsman Management Services LLC (a subsidiary of Liberty Mutual) can help manage your workers compensation costs, contact your broker.
Debbie discusses how Helmsman drives outcomes for risk managers.
Debbie explains how to manage medical outcomes.
Debbie discusses considerations when selecting a TPA.
This article was produced by the R&I Brand Studio, a unit of the advertising department of Risk & Insurance, in collaboration with Helmsman Management Services. The editorial staff of Risk & Insurance had no role in its preparation.