Column: Workers' Comp

How About a Flat Fee?

By: | February 18, 2014 • 3 min read
Roberto Ceniceros is senior editor at Risk & Insurance® and chair of the National Workers' Compensation and Disability Conference® & Expo. He can be reached at [email protected] Read more of his columns and features.

More employers wanting predictability in the fees they pay workers’ comp third-party administrators are negotiating to pay a single, flat fee for bill-review services, sources tell me. The arrangements follow from criticisms some employers, their brokers and consultants have heaped on TPAs, saying traditional TPA charges for bill-review services obscure the ultimate cost of those services.


Under traditional arrangements, a TPA might charge an employer on a per-bill basis for each medical-provider bill reviewed. Or, they might charge on a per-line basis, tallying a fee for each expense line on a bill. They can also charge the employer according to the percentage of savings produced by the bill-review process.

The inconsistency in billing methods has fueled suspicion that some TPAs — operating in a highly competitive environment — win business by bidding to provide basic claim-handling and administration at a low cost, and then boost their revenue with additional charges.

TPA executives have countered that their billing measures are transparent, at times even arguing that brokers stir the controversy to attract consulting business. But questions remain.

TPAs also differ from one to the next in their billing formats for the broad range of other claims management services they offer. So employers with the resources to do so often pay their brokers or consultants additional sums to analyze their bills and to help them select the best TPA agreement for them.

Srivatsan Sridharan, senior vice president, product development for TPA Gallagher Bassett Services Inc., said more large employers are negotiating to pay a consistent flat, per-bill fee for all bill-review-related services for each claim. The employer then pays additional amounts for claims handling and all of the other TPA services required to resolve a claim, although the charges for those other services have tended to be more predictable than the bill-review fees.

Data collection has made it possible for TPAs to model an employer’s expected claims-management expenses and accommodate flat-fee deals, Sridharan said. Such arrangements won’t reduce the cost of managing a claim, but they can make bill review costs more predictable, he added.

In a similar vein, brokers meeting privately with TPA executives during the National Workers’ Compensation and Disability Conference® & Expo, held in late November, asked TPAs about their willingness to charge one, all-inclusive fee for an employer’s entire book of claims business, said Joe Picone, chief claim officer for Willis of North America.


Ultimately, employers want to know the “true cost” of managing their claims and this “could be the next evolution of TPA pricing,” Picone said. “Why don’t we just say, ‘Instead of paying $1,500 per claim, my whole contract is worth $1 million or $500,000.’ ”

The mountain of workers’ comp claims data that TPAs collect could help make the broader flat-fee arrangement possible, at least theoretically, because TPAs could mine the data to predict the claims management costs an employer will generate when operating in a specific region and industry, with certain employee demographics and exposure differences.

We will have to wait and see whether innovative employers and TPAs go down that path.

But additional employer options for paying workers’ comp expenses would be a good thing. And with data increasingly available to help TPAs and employers understand claims-management costs, the time is right for employers wanting pricing predictability to seek change.

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View From the Bench

Workers’ Comp Docket

Significant workers' compensation decisions from around the country.
By: | August 22, 2016 • 10 min read

Bartender Serves Up Compensable Claim for Injury Due to Hugging Incident

LaFave v. Blue Lounge, 30 MIWCLR 39 (Mich. W.C.B.M. 2016)

Ruling: The Michigan workers’ compensation magistrate awarded benefits to a bartender, who injured her back while hugging an overly enthusiastic bar patron.

What it means: In Michigan, a worker’s injuries are compensable when the accident occurred while she was acting within the scope of her duties.

Summary: The magistrate awarded benefits to a bartender, who injured her back while hugging an overly enthusiastic bar patron. A video showed the two hugging and each woman lifting the other off the ground.


Finding the incident did not fall within the social and recreational exclusion, the magistrate explained that the bartender was performing her duties when the incident occurred. She was approached by a patron, whom she happened to know, and was hugged. As part of the hug each woman lifted the other off the ground. A bartender is expected to be pleasant and polite to the customers.

Also, immediately before the patron greeted and hugged the bartender and immediately after the incident she was engaged in her regular bartending duties. Being polite to an overly enthusiastic patron would arguably fall within the bartender’s duties.

The magistrate accepted the bartender’s uncontroverted medical evidence of disability and awarded benefits for a closed period. The magistrate denied benefits for her concurrent employment since she continued working there throughout the closed period. The magistrate also found that the bartender was entitled to reasonable and necessary medical expenses related to her treatment for her post-traumatic myofascial pain and low back strain.

Worker Wins Benefits for Accident During Personal Errand

Colquitt v. Starr Aviation, 31 PAWCLR 93 (Pa. W.C.A.B. 2016)

Ruling: The Pennsylvania Workers’ Compensation Appeal Board affirmed the workers’ compensation judge’s finding that an agent’s injury arose out of and in the course of her employment.

What it means: In Pennsylvania, a worker’s temporary departure from performing her work to administer to her personal needs does not take her out of the course and scope of her employment.

Summary: The board affirmed the workers’ compensation judge’s finding that an airport ramp agent, who injured her left leg when the tug she was driving flipped over, was entitled to benefits. Her injuries arose out of and in the course of her employment.

The agent was given permission between flight arrivals to drive the tug to the other side of the terminal to meet her mother, who was bringing her money and feminine hygiene products. The board explained that because the agent was simply going to meet her mother, her injury occurred during a temporary departure from work during regular business hours, and therefore, her work injury fell under the personal comfort doctrine.

The board said that the employer’s arguments would have it consider whether the trip to meet her mother was necessary. The board explained that workers’ compensation is “no-fault” and there was no such precedent, so it rejected the argument.

The board also found that the employer’s argument of whether the agent was on the employer’s premises when she was injured was moot. There was no requirement that the agent be on the employer’s premises at the time of her injury because she was engaged in the furtherance of the employer’s affairs.

Employee Can’t Be Disqualified From Benefits Due to Violent Thoughts

Cory Fairbanks Mazda/The PMA Insurance Group v. Minor, No. 1D15-1600 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 05/25/16)

Ruling: The Florida District Court of Appeal held that a worker was entitled to temporary partial disability benefits.

What it means: In Florida, malevolent thoughts alone, without evidence establishing an intent to harm, do not establish misconduct.

Summary: An office worker for Cory Fairbanks Mazda sustained compensable workplace injuries to her head, neck, low back, and left knee as a result of two incidents of being struck by a door opened by a coworker. The worker thought that the coworker intentionally injured her. The worker received medical care for her injuries and returned to work with accommodations.


Later, the worker’s attorney informed the judge of compensation claims and the employer that the worker “expressed suicidal and homicidal ideation,” but not to the degree of imminent threat. The employer terminated the worker based on the attorney’s representation.

The employer and its insurer argued that the worker was ineligible for temporary partial disability benefits because she was terminated for misconduct. The Florida District Court of Appeal held that the worker was entitled to temporary partial disability benefits from the date of her termination.

After an examination, a psychiatrist described the worker’s expressions of anger as “blowing off steam” rather than declaring an intent to inflict physical harm. The worker said that she told her attorney that she wanted to punch the coworker.

The employer’s allegation of misconduct was based solely on the attorney’s statement that the worker shared that she had suicidal and homicidal thoughts arising from her injuries. The employer argued that the worker intended to harm or kill the coworker.

The court rejected the employer’s argument, stating that malevolent thoughts alone, without the requisite evidence establishing an intent to harm, do not meet the definition of misconduct.

Driver Allowed to Pursue Texas, Oklahoma Benefits Simultaneously

Maxwell v. Faith Transport, LLC, No. 113832 (Okla. Civ. App. 05/25/16)

Ruling: The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals held that it had jurisdiction over a claim brought by a driver.

What it means: Oklahoma may hold concurrent jurisdiction over a claim with another state.

Summary: A truck driver, who lived in Oklahoma, worked for Faith Transport, a Texas entity. He was severely injured in an accident while driving on duty in Texas. Faith’s workers’ compensation carrier, Texas Mutual Insurance Co., initiated payments of workers’ compensation benefits to the driver pursuant to Texas law.

Later, Texas Mutual Insurance Co. sent the driver a letter notifying him of the suspension of his benefits. The driver filed a workers’ compensation claim in Oklahoma. Faith rejected the claim, asserting that Oklahoma did not have jurisdiction over the claim. The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals held that it had concurrent jurisdiction with Texas.

The court explained that an Oklahoma worker injured while on the job in another state can pursue benefits from both jurisdictions simultaneously. The court rejected Faith’s argument that the driver’s acceptance of the Texas Mutual Insurance Co. checks amounted to an election of Texas law.

The court found that by filing a claim in Oklahoma the driver elected to initiate an Oklahoma claim. He performed no similar act in Texas. The payments the driver received pursuant to Texas law were voluntarily initiated by Texas Mutual Insurance Co.

The receipt of those benefits was not an election to proceed in Texas. The court explained that the right of election for a claim of benefits belongs to the worker, not an out-of-state insurance carrier.

The court explained that logic and statutory construction led to a conclusion that if the election to file a claim in Oklahoma did not prevent Texas benefits, then the receipt of Texas benefits does not prevent the election of a claim in Oklahoma. The court concluded that the driver was not precluded from electing to file a claim in Oklahoma, assuming that no final decision was reached in Texas.

The court found that the suspension of the driver’s Texas benefits was not the equivalent of a “final determination” because the suspension was subject to review or appeal.

Witnessing Aftermath of Car Accidents Created Compensable Mental Injury

Mantia v. Missouri Department of Transportation, No. ED103016 (Mo. Ct. App. 06/14/16)

Ruling: The Missouri Court of Appeals held that a worker’s mental injury was compensable and that she was entitled to benefits for a 50 percent permanent partial disability of the whole body and future medical benefits.

What it means: In Missouri, under the 2005 amendments to the law, evidence of the work stress encountered by similarly situated workers is not required to establish a claim for a mental injury. A worker must show that she suffered a mental injury resulting from stress that was work-related and “extraordinary and unusual” as measured by objective standards and actual events.

Summary: A worker for the state Department of Transportation provided traffic control and assistance at motor vehicle accident scenes. Over her 20-year career, she witnessed the aftermath of a multitude of serious accidents that involved catastrophic injury, dismemberment, and death. She began to suffer significant emotional and psychological symptoms.


The worker filed a claim for workers’ compensation benefits. The Missouri Court of Appeals held that she was entitled to benefits.

The court found that under the 2005 amendments to the law, evidence of the work stress encountered by similarly situated workers was not required to establish a claim for a mental injury. The worker had to show that she suffered a mental injury resulting from stress that was work-related and “extraordinary and unusual” as measured by objective standards and actual events.

The court found that the worker met this burden. Both parties’ medical experts agreed that the worker’s work-

related stress was the cause of her disability. The court found that witnessing the aftermath of serious accidents placed stresses on the worker more extreme than most workers would ever experience. The court found that the experiences were “extraordinary and unusual” and also “unmistakably exceptional and remarkable.”

The court found sufficient evidence supporting an award for 50 percent permanent partial disability of the whole body. The court also ordered the department to pay for the worker’s future medical care to treat her mental injuries. The court noted that continued antidepressant medication would likely require ongoing medical management by the prescribing physician.

Medical Evidence Shows Preexisting Conditions Caused Manager’s Disability

Buchinsky v. The Arc of Anchorage, No. S-15547, No. 1585 (Alaska 05/25/16)

Ruling: The Alaska Supreme Court held that a manager was not entitled to benefits because the work-related injuries were not the cause of her disability or need for treatment.

What it means: In Alaska, medical evidence that a worker’s preexisting conditions, rather than her work-related injuries, were the cause of her need for treatment will support the denial of a claim.

Summary: A case manager for The Arc of Anchorage sustained injuries when a filing cabinet fell on her twice in one week. The manager sought benefits. The Arc disputed the claim after its doctor said that the work-related injury was not the substantial cause of the manager’s later need for medical treatment.

The Alaska Supreme Court held that the manager was not entitled to benefits because she did not show that the work-related injuries were the cause of her disability or need for treatment.

The court found that substantial evidence supported a conclusion that the manager’s preexisting orthopedic problems, rather than her work-related injury, were the substantial cause of her disability and need for medical treatment of her knees, back, and neck.

One doctor compared MRIs of the manager’s neck both before and after the work injury and determined that the MRIs were almost identical. Imaging studies of her knees showed considerable arthritis before the work injury. A doctor told the manager after the work injury that she did not need knee surgery because her knee problems were due to her arthritis.

Also, a month before the work injury, the manager and a neurosurgeon discussed neck surgery to resolve her complaints related to pain and numbness.

The court pointed out that continuing pain after a work-related injury does not mean that the work-related incident caused the pain.

The court also noted that in this case the medical records did not show an immediate increase in pain in the period after the injury. The manager’s chiropractor released her to return to work without restrictions less than a week after the second incident. Her pain complaints increased a month later.

Christina Lumbreras is a Legal Editor for Workers' Compensation Report, a publication of our parent company, LRP Publications. She can be reached at [email protected]
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Sponsored: Liberty International Underwriters

Cyber: The Overlooked Environmental Threat

Environmental businesses often don't see themselves as a target, but their operations are just as vulnerable to the threat of an industrial cyber attack.
By: | August 3, 2016 • 6 min read

“Cyber breach” conjures fears of lost or ransomed data, denial of service, leaked corporate secrets and phishing scams.

But in a world where so many physical operations are automated and controlled by digital technologies, the consequences of cyber attacks extend far beyond the digital realm to include property damage, bodily injury, and even environmental pollution.

Industrial companies that deal with hazardous materials — like power plants, refineries, factories, water treatment facilities or pipelines — are heavily dependent on automated technology to maximize their efficiency. Other sectors use technology to control HVAC systems, power and utilities, placing their properties at risk as well.

Cyber risks like theft of personally identifiable data have been highly publicized in recent years, but physical risks like pollution sparked by a cyber breach may not be as obvious.

“It’s significant to lose 100,000 customers’ Social Security numbers,” said William Bell, Senior Vice President, Environmental, Liberty International Underwriters, “but can you imagine if a waste treatment facility’s operations get hacked, gates open, and thousands of tons of raw sewage go flowing down a local river?”

In many industrial complexes, a network of sensors gathers and monitors data around machinery efficiency and the flow of the materials being processed. They send that information to computer terminals that interpret the data into commands for the hardware elements like motors, pumps and valves.

This automation technology can control, for example, the flow of pipelines, the level of water or waste held in a reservoir, or the gates that hold in and control the release of vast quantities of sewage and other process materials. Hackers who want to cause catastrophe could hijack that system and unleash damaging pollutants.

And it’s already happened.

In 2000, a hacker caused 800,000 liters of untreated sewage to flood the waterways of Maroochy Shire, Australia. In 2009, an IT contractor, disgruntled because he was not hired full-time, disabled leak detection alarm systems on three off-shore oil rigs near Long Beach, Calif.

Just last year, cyber attackers infiltrated the network of a German steel mill through a phishing scam, eventually hacking into the production control system and manipulating a blast furnace so it could not be shut down. The incident led to significant property damage.

According to a leading industrial security expert and executive director of the International Society of Automation, “Today’s operational technologies—such as sensors, SCADA systems, software and other controls that drive modern industrial processes—are vulnerable to cyber attack. The risk of serious damage or compromise to power and chemical plants, oil and gas facilities, chemical and water installations and other vital critical infrastructure assets is real.”

“The hacks could come from anywhere: a teenager looking for entertainment, a disgruntled worker, or more sophisticated criminals or terrorists,” Bell said. “There are certainly groups out there with political and ideological motivations to wreak that kind of havoc.”

LIU_SponsoredContent“We are working to bring the cyber component of environmental risk to the forefront. Cyber security is not just an IT issue. Industry executives need to be aware of the real-world risks and danger associated with an industrial cyber attack as well as the critical differences between cyber security and operational technology security.”

— William Bell, Senior Vice President, Environmental, Liberty International Underwriters

The cleanup cost of an environmental disaster can climb into the hundreds of millions, and even if a cyber breach triggered the event, a cyber policy alone will not cover the physical and environmental damage it caused.

The risk is even more pointed now, as resource conservation becomes increasingly important. Weather related catastrophe modeling is changing as both flooding and drought become more severe and frequent in different regions of the U.S. Pollution of major waterways and watersheds could have severe consequences if it affects drinking water sources, agriculture and other industrial applications that depend on this resource.

Managing the Risk

LIU_SponsoredContentUnfortunately, major industrial corporations sometimes address their environmental exposure with some hubris. They trust in their engineers to remove the risk by designing airtight systems, to make a disaster next to impossible. The prospect of buying environmental insurance, then, would be superfluous, an expression of doubt in their science-backed systems.

Despite the strongest risk management efforts, though, no disaster is 100 percent avoidable.

“We are working to bring the cyber component of environmental risk to the forefront,” Bell said. “Cyber security is not just an IT issue. Industry executives need to be aware of the real-world risks and danger associated with an industrial cyber attack as well as the critical differences between cyber security and operational technology security.”

The focus on network security and data protection has distracted industry leaders from strengthening operational technology security. Energy, manufacturing and other industrial sectors lack best practice standards when it comes to securing their automated processes.

After the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the Department of Homeland Security began comprehensive assessments of critical infrastructure’s cyber vulnerability, working with owners and operators to develop solutions. It also offers informational guides for private companies to do the same. The National Institute of Standards and Technology also continues work on its cyber security framework for critical infrastructure. Although this helps to establish some best practices, it does not completely mitigate the risk.

Many businesses don’t see themselves as a target, but they need to look beyond their own operations and property lines. They could be an attractive target due to their proximity to densely populated areas or resources such as waterways and highways, or nationally or historically significant areas. The goal of a cyber terrorist is not always to harm the target itself, but the collateral damage.

The Role of Insurance

LIU_SponsoredContent“Environmental liability is still by and large viewed as a discretionary purchase,” Bell said, “but the threat of a cyber attack that can manipulate those systems and ultimately lead to a pollution incident is added incentive to buy environmental coverage.”

Liberty International Underwriters’ environmental coverage could respond to many pollution conditions set off by a cyber breach event.

“Property damage, bodily injury and cleanup of any pollution at or emanating from a covered property would likely be taken care of,” Bell said. “The risk is not so much the cyber exposure but the consequence of the attack. The resulting claims and degradation to the environment could be severe, especially if the insured was a target chosen because of their unique position to have a large effect on the local population and environment.”

LIU also offers dedicated Cyber Liability insurance solutions designed to manage and mitigate the cost of responding to a cyber attack and any resultant loss of data and associated liability. Coverage includes proactive data breach response services designed to help organizations comply with regulatory requirements and prevent data breaches.

LIU’s loss control managers are also on hand to conduct assessments of insureds’ properties and facilities to examine potential environmental impacts. They can educate brokers on the importance of enhancing cyber security to prevent an environmental accident in the first place.

“People are relying more and more on their systems, automaton is increasing, and the risk is growing,” Bell said. “We’re all focused on protecting data, but the consequences of a cyber breach can be much farther reaching than data alone.”

To learn more about Liberty International Underwriters’ environmental coverages and services, visit

Liberty International Underwriters is the marketing name for the broker-distributed specialty lines business operations of Liberty Mutual Insurance. Certain coverage may be provided by a surplus lines insurer. Surplus lines insurers do not generally participate in state guaranty funds and insureds are therefore not protected by such funds. This literature is a summary only and does not include all terms, conditions, or exclusions of the coverage described. Please refer to the actual policy issued for complete details of coverage and exclusions.

This article was produced by the R&I Brand Studio, a unit of the advertising department of Risk & Insurance, in collaboration with Liberty International Underwriters. The editorial staff of Risk & Insurance had no role in its preparation.


LIU is part of the Global Specialty Division of Liberty Mutual Insurance.
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