It’s All About Content

Sleeker. Bolder. More responsive. In a word - immersive.

A more immersive reading experience? We’re glad you asked. A cleaner layout and typographic design keeps your focus on the content. The “infinite scroll,” simplified navigation and Google search make finding interesting articles easier. And no matter your screen size – PC, tablet or phone – the site is optimized to ensure the same great experience.

The benefits of the site are mostly self-evident. But a few features are worth highlighting to help get you started:

Article Pages


Current Section: Displays the issue, topic, author or section you are currently viewing.

Content Ribbon: Lists all of the articles in the current section. Easily browse the articles and click on any tile to load that article into the infinite scroll.

Infinite Scroll: Read each article from top to bottom without having to click to continue. The next article loads automatically so you can continuously read/browse an entire issue or section – similar to how you read a print magazine.

Full Screen: Click the arrow to hide the content ribbon and create a clutter-free article reading experience. Also handy for smaller screens or tablets.

More Ways to Explore


Nav Bar: Click the gray bar to reveal several filters, sections and topics that tailor articles to your interests. 

Authors/Topics: Reading an article you like? Click on the author’s name to see all of their content or click on one of the topics to load that section.

Google Search: Still not finding what you want? The search bar slides out to help you find it.

Responsive Design (Mobile Optimized) 

The site utilizes a responsive design. That means the layout automatically adjusts to different screen sizes. You can see the technology in action by adjusting the size of your browser window. It’s pretty cool.

But responsive design is more than just a neat trick. It ensures that our new site looks great and works well on all screen sizes. Call us a website or, if you like, a web app – the site combines the benefits of the free and open web with the elegance of an application.


More to Come

But we are not done yet. The site enables us to integrate new content types into our stories. Over the next year, you will see more charts, graphs, infographics, videos, photos, etc.

Be sure to sign-up for one of our newsletters to stay abreast of all these developments as well as the latest articles and content we publish.

In the meantime, we would love to hear your feedback about the new site or anything else we do. Write to us at [email protected].

Aviation Woes

Coping with Cancellations

Could a weather-related insurance solution be designed to help airlines cope with cancellation losses?
By: | April 23, 2014 • 4 min read

Airlines typically can offset revenue losses for cancellations due to bad weather either by saving on fuel and salary costs or rerouting passengers on other flights, but this year’s revenue losses from the worst winter storm season in years might be too much for traditional measures.

At least one broker said the time may be right for airlines to consider crafting custom insurance programs to account for such devastating seasons.

For a good part of the country, including many parts of the Southeast, snow and ice storms have wreaked havoc on flight cancellations, with a mid-February storm being the worst of all. On Feb. 13, a snowstorm from Virginia to Maine caused airlines to scrub 7,561 U.S. flights, more than the 7,400 cancelled flights due to Hurricane Sandy, according to MasFlight, industry data tracker based in Bethesda, Md.


Roughly 100,000 flights have been canceled since Dec. 1, MasFlight said.

Just United, alone, the world’s second-largest airline, reported that it had cancelled 22,500 flights in January and February, 2014, according to Bloomberg. The airline’s completed regional flights was 87.1 percent, which was “an extraordinarily low level,” and almost 9 percentage points below its mainline operations, it reported.

And another potentially heavy snowfall was forecast for last weekend, from California to New England.

The sheer amount of cancellations this winter are likely straining airlines’ bottom lines, said Katie Connell, a spokeswoman for Airlines for America, a trade group for major U.S. airline companies.

“The airline industry’s fixed costs are high, therefore the majority of operating costs will still be incurred by airlines, even for canceled flights,” Connell wrote in an email. “If a flight is canceled due to weather, the only significant cost that the airline avoids is fuel; otherwise, it must still pay ownership costs for aircraft and ground equipment, maintenance costs and overhead and most crew costs. Extended storms and other sources of irregular operations are clear reminders of the industry’s operational and financial vulnerability to factors outside its control.”

Bob Mann, an independent airline analyst and consultant who is principal of R.W. Mann & Co. Inc. in Port Washington, N.Y., said that two-thirds of costs — fuel and labor — are short-term variable costs, but that fixed charges are “unfortunately incurred.” Airlines just typically absorb those costs.

“I am not aware of any airline that has considered taking out business interruption insurance for weather-related disruptions; it is simply a part of the business,” Mann said.

Chuck Cederroth, managing director at Aon Risk Solutions’ aviation practice, said carriers would probably not want to insure airlines against cancellations because airlines have control over whether a flight will be canceled, particularly if they don’t want to risk being fined up to $27,500 for each passenger by the Federal Aviation Administration when passengers are stuck on a tarmac for hours.

“How could an insurance product work when the insured is the one who controls the trigger?” Cederroth asked. “I think it would be a product that insurance companies would probably have a hard time providing.”

But Brad Meinhardt, U.S. aviation practice leader, for Arthur J. Gallagher & Co., said now may be the best time for airlines — and insurance carriers — to think about crafting a specialized insurance program to cover fluke years like this one.


“I would be stunned if this subject hasn’t made its way up into the C-suites of major and mid-sized airlines,” Meinhardt said. “When these events happen, people tend to look over their shoulder and ask if there is a solution for such events.”

Airlines often hedge losses from unknown variables such as varying fuel costs or interest rate fluctuations using derivatives, but those tools may not be enough for severe winters such as this year’s, he said. While products like business interruption insurance may not be used for airlines, they could look at weather-related insurance products that have very specific triggers.

For example, airlines could designate a period of time for such a “tough winter policy,” say from the period of November to March, in which they can manage cancellations due to 10 days of heavy snowfall, Meinhardt said. That amount could be designated their retention in such a policy, and anything in excess of the designated snowfall days could be a defined benefit that a carrier could pay if the policy is triggered. Possibly, the trigger would be inches of snowfall. “Custom solutions are the idea,” he said.

“Airlines are not likely buying any of these types of products now, but I think there’s probably some thinking along those lines right now as many might have to take losses as write-downs on their quarterly earnings and hope this doesn’t happen again,” he said. “There probably needs to be one airline making a trailblazing action on an insurance or derivative product — something that gets people talking about how to hedge against those losses in the future.”

Katie Kuehner-Hebert is a freelance writer based in California. She has more than two decades of journalism experience and expertise in financial writing. She can be reached at [email protected]
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It’s all in the Code: Five Essential Characteristics of HCPCS that Influence Outcomes

Keep in mind these five critical elements of HCPCS that can impact payers and claimants alike.
By: | October 1, 2015 • 5 min read

Payers are no stranger to codes. Claim and policy administration systems are filled with them. Moreover, whether designating claim type, feature, branch office, policy term, type of injury, or another classification, their use facilitates consistency and understanding. Codes also guide clinical and financial decision-making. At the foundation of medical cost management are three code sets. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) diagnostic and procedure codes, ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS respectively, are used to classify diseases, disorders, injuries, infections, and symptoms. National Drug Codes (NDCs) help ensure claimants received the correct strength, dosage form, and type of medication. Their use also helps pharmacists recognize the difference between products that may look or sound alike. Yet another useful code set is the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) created to identify services, products, and procedures rendered for the condition. It is on this code set we will focus.

When processing ancillary benefits in workers’ compensation and auto no-fault, HCPCS can determine whether the item is considered medically necessary and therefore, available to the claimant and otherwise related to the compensable condition. Codes can also affect the reimbursement amount. Thus, if a coding error is made, there can be significant adverse impacts to payers and claimants alike. For example, the vendor could stop supplying the item based on insufficient reimbursement, or the payer could deny the product or service completely. Both are detrimental to the claimant or overall claim outcomes. Coding errors may also result in claim leakage if applied incorrectly or misunderstood in the review process. It is therefore essential that payers be mindful of five essential characteristics of HCPCS.

#1 – HCPCS are generic

Like pharmaceuticals, there are many different providers and manufacturers of similar durable medical equipment (DME) items. However, HCPCS are not specific to brand and usually hundreds of different products can fall under the same HCPCS. In addition, some codes include certain services, such as evaluations and fitting fees, whereas some codes do not. For example, some health HCPCS rarely indicate the actual services being provided in the home, such as wound care or home infusion, but instead simply indicate an RN or LPN visit.

#2 – Unit of measure influences coding

Some supply codes have very specific units of measure, which can result in HCPCS quantities that are not whole numbers and can result in mathematical errors or rounding. For example, HCPCS code A4450 has a unit of measure of ‘per 18 square inches’ and is assigned to a roll of tape that is 2 inches by 5.4 yards, equaling 388.8 square inches. The quantity for this HCPCS code would therefore be 21.6. Additionally, some HCPCS codes specify ‘per pair’ or ‘each,’ so understanding the actual supply is important to determine the appropriate quantity.

# 3 – Sometimes, there is not a specific code

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a number of miscellaneous codes that have generic definitions and can be used when no other CPT or HCPCS code matches the description of the product or service provided. Miscellaneous codes can be easily abused either unintentionally due to lack of time and knowledge, or intentionally by a provider seeking a higher reimbursement rate. This is because miscellaneous codes typically do not carry a fee schedule due to their versatility and, therefore, may be reimbursed at higher amounts than a non-miscellaneous code. For example, K0108 defines a ‘wheelchair component or accessory, not otherwise specified;’ however, most wheelchair parts have a specific code outside of this one which could be more appropriate while also carrying a lower allowable amount.

#4 – Supplemental modifiers are useful

A supplemental modifier or identifier is a billing value that further clarifies the HCPCS/CPT code by telling the payer more about the billed product or service. Their application influences reimbursement because fee schedules largely differ depending on which modifier is reported. A rental (RR) for example, does not warrant the same reimbursement as a purchase (NU) yet both a purchase and rental of the same product carry the same HCPCS. Consider the following codes, K0001 = ‘STANDARD WHEELCHAIR’, K0001 RR = ‘STANDARD WHEELCHAIR’ that has been rented, and K0001 NU = ‘STANDARD WHEELCHAIR’ that has been purchased. Depending on the fee schedule, reimbursement could be $45 or $500.

Modifiers are also useful because they can define the unit of measure. By default, a HCPCS with a modifier of ‘RR’ is a rental per month. However, in some cases a provider may bill for a device daily and therefore interpret the fee schedule as daily rather than monthly. In this scenario, the provider may bill with a daily unit of measure, billing a quantity of 30 instead of the allowable amount of one. For devices that are rented daily, such as a negative pressure wound therapy device or continuous passive motion device, it is important to understand the unit of measure being used (monthly or daily) and be mindful that the daily billing exceeds the monthly allowable.


# 5 – The diagnosis influences allowable amounts

Some HCPCS change based on the diagnosis of the injured person and therefore, the allowable amount may fluctuate. For example, depth-inlay shoes are coded as an Orthotic (L – code) if the patient does not have a diabetic diagnosis and is using the shoes for orthopedic reasons. The same depth-inlay shoe may be used for a diabetic patient, but it would warrant an A-code, which can have a higher reimbursement level.

Influencing outcomes

The use of coding assists claims professionals in compensability decisions, guides clinical decision-making, informs point-of-sale utilization controls, influences claim handling policies and procedures, and provides a valuable data point in statistical and analytics models. Moreover, their use facilitates better clinical and financial claim management in terms of payments that are more accurate, greater processing efficiency and consistency, and improved clinical management as a result of better understanding the medical condition(s) associated with the claim and the various therapies in use. Remaining mindful of the aforementioned five essential characteristics of HCPCS can therefore not only mitigate claim leakage but also achieve a better outcome.

This article was produced by Helios and not the Risk & Insurance® editorial team.

Helios brings the focus of workers’ compensation and auto no-fault Pharmacy Benefit Management, Ancillary, and Settlement Solutions back to where it belongs—the injured person. This comes with a passion and intensity on delivering value beyond just the transactional savings for which we excel. To learn how our creative and innovative tools, expertise, and industry leadership can help your business shine, visit
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