When other methods are not working and opioids may be warranted, Dr. Steven Feinberg of the Palo Alto-based Feinberg Medical Group suggests physicians consider the "Four As" of pain treatment outcomes:
1.Adequate Analgesia -- pain relief.
2.Improved Activities of daily living -- psychosocial functioning.
3.Manageable or no Adverse effects -- side effects.
4.No evidence of Aberrant drug taking -- addiction-related outcomes.
November 29, 2010
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